Da New York a Dubai passando per Milano e Londra, qui trovate gli edifici più alti e più sontuosi, tra piscine panoramiche e ascensori-garage per portare le auto al piano. Trovate anche i prezzi Da New York a Shanghai, da Milano a Dubai, viaggio alla scoperta degli edifici più alti e più sontuosi che ci siano. Disegnati da archistar del calibro Pininfarina, Renzo Piano o Zaha Hadid, svettano nello skyline delle città nascondendo appartamenti principeschi, raffinati boutique hotel e attici sconfinati con piscina altrettanto sconfinata. Sono abitati rigorosamente da milionari e calciatori, da Lionel Messi a David Beckham.
Dal grattacielo con l’ascensore-garage per portare le automobili al piano a quello il ristorante privato per i suoi condomini, dalla torre affacciata sulla Mecca a quella che ospita la famiglia del miliardario indiano Mukesh Ambani, nella gallery trovate 50 esempi di ricchezza con vista panoramica. Abbiamo indicato anche qualche prezzo, così potere farvi un’idea qualora stesse valutando di cambiare casa e avete ambizioni extralusso.
Late Modernism encompasses the period from the end of World War II to the early 21st century. Late Modernism describes a movement that arose from and reacted to trends in ITS and Modernism. The Late Modern period was dominated by American innovations spurred on by America’s new-found wealth.
“Formed by Milton Glaser and Seymour Chwast, Push Pin was a studio that created innovative typographic solutions — I♥NY— brand identities, political posters, books, and albums (such Bob Dylan’s album Dylan).”
The need for more advertising, marketing, and packaging was matched by a new mood in the culture — a mood that was exuberant and playful, not rigid and rule-oriented.
Late Modern was inspired by European avant-garde immigrants. These immigrants found work in design and quickly introduced Americans to early modern principles of an idealistic and theoretical nature.
American design at this point had been pragmatic, intuitive, and organic in composition. The fusion of these two methodologies in a highly competitive and creative climate produced design work that was original in concept, witty, and provocative and, as personal expression was highly prized, full of a variety of visual styles. Paul Rand is one of the great innovators of this style.
Rand was adept at using ITS when its rules and principles were called for, but he was also very influenced by European art movements of the times.
Push Pin Studios
An excellent example of this expansive style can be found in the design output of New York’s Push Pin Studios. Formed by Milton Glaser and Seymour Chwast, Push Pin was a studio that created innovative typographic solutions — I♥NY— brand identities, political posters, books, and albums (such Bob Dylan’s album Dylan).
It was adept at using and mixing illustration, photography, collage, and typography for unexpected and innovative visual results that were always fresh and interesting as well as for its excellent conceptual solutions. The influence of Push Pin and Late Modern is still alive and has recently experienced a resurgence. Many young designers have adopted this style because of its fresh colours, fine wit, and spontaneous compositions.
The look of graphic design also changed through advancements in photography, typesetting, and printing techniques. Designers felt confident in exploring and experimenting with the new technologies as they were well supported by the expertise of the print industry. Designers began to cut up type and images and compose directly on mechanical boards, which were then photographed and manipulated on the press for colour experimentation. As well, illustration was once again prized. Conceptual typography also became a popular form of expression.
In many ways, the design language of Punk echoed the Dadaist style, though Punk was anchored with a pointed, political message against the tyranny of society and the disenfranchisement of youth. A use of aggressive collages, and experimental photography were its hallmarks.
“A use of aggressive collages, colours, and experimental photography were its hallmarks.”
These free-form, spontaneous design works incorporated pithy tag lines and seethed with anger in a way that Dada work never attempted to achieve. Punk actively moved away from the conformities of design, and was anti-patriotic and anti-establishment.
Punk established the do-it-yourself (DIY) ethos and stylized it with the angry anti-establishment mood of the mid 1970s, a time of political and social turbulence.
DIY style was considered shocking and uncontrolled. However, the influence on design has been far reaching and subsequently widely emulated.
Jamie Reid, a pioneer of the Punk style, developed the visual signature look for the Sex Pistols and many other punk bands.
Early Post Modernism
His personal signature style was known for a collaged ‘ransom note’ typography that became a typographic style of its own. Reid cut letters out of newspapers and magazines, and collaged them together to be photographed. By doing this, he could see what he was creating as he went along, trying out different font styles and sizes and seeing the results instantly. Treating type as if it were a photograph also freed him from the restrictions of typesetting within a structured grid and allowed him to develop his ideas and concepts as he created. This unguided, process-free approach to design became a part of the Post Modern experimentation that was to come.
When Punk first exploded in the 1970s, it was deemed a youthful rebellion. In actuality, it was one of the many forms of visual expression that manifested as part of the Postmodernist movement that began as a reaction to the rigid restrictions of Modernism.
Post Modernism is still in use today, though selectively. The chaos created by our technological advancements needs to be balanced with the ease of accessing information. The Apple brand is a good example of a contemporary design approach that feels fresh and current, while delivering massive amounts of information in a clean and simple way. The Post Modern methods of built-in visual difficulty are less welcome in our data-saturated culture.
Colour management comes into play at two primary points in the print production workflow: during file creation with authoring tools like the Adobe Creative applications (Photoshop, InDesign, Illustrator), and then when the file is processed for output with a workflow software program such as Kodak Prinergy.
“The terminology that is often employed is colour cast, to indicate a shift toward a particular colour.”
Let’s examine the details in these most widely used software tools to provide concrete examples.
The primary tool for colour management in the Adobe products is the Color Settings dialog under the Edit menu.
Fortunately, these settings can be shared across all of the Adobe applications to coordinate a consistent delivery of colour strategy. Define your settings in Photoshop, as this is the application with the largest number of options, to guarantee that all possible options have been set to your choices.
Launch Photoshop and, from the Edit menu, choose Color Settings. There are three main sections to the dialog window: Working Spaces, Color Management Policies, and Conversion Options. Change the Settings option above the Working Spaces panel to North American Prepress 2. This applies a set of defaults that are optimal for a print production workflow.
Assessing the Effect of a Colour Profile
Once the profile is applied, what should we be looking for? Both on screen and when comparing hard-copy (printed) samples, there are specific areas of the image that should be checked. There is also industry-specific language used in describing colour appearance that it is helpful to be familiar with.
The areas of the image to pay special attention to are saturated colours, flesh tones, neutrals, and the highlights. Proof and print sample sheets will have four or five images that emphasize these areas along with tone ramps in the process and overprint colours. Focusing on these areas of interest will make it easiest to identify variation when checking for colour matching.
The terminology that is often employed is colour cast, to indicate a shift toward a particular colour; heaviness, to suggest excessive tone (particularly in the highlights); dirty, to specify too much complementary colour resulting in greying; and flat, to describe a lack of contrast and/or saturation. Knowing the terminology will help you understand the comments your co-workers may make and will help remind you of the types of analysis you should be doing.